Anxiety Research

Last updated June 10, 2021

It’s been long known that anxiety and stress cause an increase in activity in the fear center of the brain (the amygdala and other parts of the brain) and a decrease in activity in the executive function parts of the brain (the prefrontal cortex and others).

However, this is the first time brain scans have been used to examine how emotion-regulation circuits are changed by anxiety and chronic stress in children.

The takeaway, however, is not that the brain is malfunctioning or damaged in some way due to anxiety, but that the brain is responding the way it’s supposed to when we think we are in danger. This change in brain function is an integral part of the body’s survival mechanism.

We explain this change in brain function in more detail in our “Stress Response” article.

We can remedy this change by behaving calmly instead of anxiously. As we use calming behavior, the executive function parts of the brain increase in activity, and the fear center decreases. Thus, restoring our ability to regulate our emotions.

So, it’s not that we can’t regulate our emotions when we’re anxious, but a matter of learning how so that we can gain more control over our emotions when we are anxious.

Recovery Support members can read the articles “Hyperstimulation And Its Effects,” “The Rational Brain And The Emotional Brain,” and the “Natural Ways To Shift The Body Out Of ‘Emergency Mode’” in chapter 14 for more information about how anxiety changes brain function and how to regain emotional control.

You can read the press release about this research below:

Stanford study finds stronger one-way fear signals in brains of anxious kids

Signals from the brain’s fear center make it more difficult for anxious and stressed children to regulate their emotions, a first-of-its-kind brain scanning study from Stanford shows.

In chronically stressed or anxious children, the brain’s fear center sends signals to the decision-making part of the brain that make it harder to regulate negative emotions, according to new research from the Stanford University School of Medicine.

The findings, which was published April 21 in Biological Psychiatry, come from the first study to use brain scans to examine how emotion-regulation circuits are changed by anxiety and chronic stress in children. The children studied were 10 or 11 years old, a developmental stage when vulnerability to mood-regulation disorders, such as anxiety and depression, becomes entrenched.

The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the nature of the signals between two parts of the brain: the amygdalae, almond-shaped nerve clusters on the right and left sides of the brain that function as its fear centers; and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain region involved in executive functions such as decision making and emotion regulation.



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“The more anxious or stress-reactive an individual is, the stronger the bottom-up signal we observed from the amygdala to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,” said the study’s senior author, Vinod Menon, PhD, the Rachael L. and Walter F. Nichols, MD, Professor and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. “This indicates that the circuit is being hijacked in more anxious children, and it suggests a common marker underlying these two clinical measures, anxiety and stress reactivity.”

Victor Carrion, MD, a co-author of the study and professor of child and adolescent psychiatry, said, “This study shows that the communication between our emotional centers and our thinking centers becomes less fluid when there is significant stress. You want that connection to be strongly signaling back and forth. But stress and anxiety of a certain level seem to interrupt that process.”

Carrion is the director of the Stanford Early Life Stress and Pediatric Anxiety Program, and is the John A. Turner, MD, Endowed Professor for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Lead authorship of the paper is shared by researcher Stacie Warren, PhD, and postdoctoral scholar Yuan Zhang, PhD.

Kids react to images

The study included 45 students in a California community with predominantly low-income residents who often face high levels of adversity. All 45 children had their anxiety levels and stress responses measured using standard behavioral questionnaires. Although their exposure to stress was potentially high, none were diagnosed with mood disorders.

To test how the children’s brains responded as they were trying to regulate negative emotions, the scientists conducted functional MRI scans while the study participants looked at two types of images, neutral and aversive. Neutral images showed pleasant scenes, such as someone taking a walk, whereas aversive images showed potentially distressing scenes, such as a car crash.

The children received instructions about responding to each image. For all the neutral images and half the aversive images, they were asked to look at them and respond to them naturally, rating their emotional state on a numerical scale after seeing each one. They were asked to look at the other half of the aversive images and try to reduce any negative reactions they had by telling themselves a story to make the pictures seem less upsetting — a story such as, “This car crash looks bad, but the people in the vehicles weren’t hurt.” After the kids tried to modify their emotional reaction, they again rated their emotional state on the numerical scale.

As the researchers expected, the children reported less negative emotions after being asked to reappraise their reactions to aversive images.

Using the brain-scan data, the researchers tested the strength and direction of interactions between the amygdala, the fear center, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the reasoning center, while the children viewed the images. Although the children with different levels of anxiety and stress reactivity reported similar reductions in their negative emotions when asked to reappraise the aversive images, their brains were doing different things.

More stress leads to less control of emotional reaction

The more anxious or stressed the child, the stronger the directional signals from the right amygdala to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. No such effects were seen in the reverse direction — that is, there was no increase in signaling from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the amygdala. Higher levels of anxiety were associated with less positive initial reactions to aversive images, less ability to regulate emotional reaction in response to aversive images, and more impulsive reactions during reappraisal of aversive images. Higher stress reactivity was linked with less controlled, more impulsive reactions when reappraising aversive images, suggesting that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is less able to carry out its job.

Not only do the findings reveal how the brain can be changed by anxiety, they also act as a baseline for future studies to test interventions that may help children manage their anxiety and stress responses, the scientists said.

“We need to be more mindful about intervening,” Menon said. “These results show that the brain is not self-correcting in anxious children.”

“Thinking positively is not something that happens automatically,” Carrion said. “In fact, automatically we think negatively. That, evolutionarily, is what produced results. Negative thoughts are automatic thoughts, and positive thoughts need to be practiced and learned.”

The paper’s other Stanford co-authors are former research assistants Katherine Duberg and Sarah-Nicole Bostan; postdoctoral scholar Percy Mistry, PhD; Weidong Cai, PhD, clinical assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences; former postdoctoral scholar Shaozheng Qin, PhD; and former staff researcher Aarthi Padmanabhan, PhD.

This work was completed in partnership with the Ravenswood City, Alum Rock and Orchard school districts and Pure Edge Inc., which provides mindfulness curricula for children, and supported by the Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health, the National Institutes of Health (grants EB022907, NS086085 and MH121069), the Stanford Maternal Child Health Research Institute and the Stanford Institute for Computational & Mathematical Engineering.

Media Contacts

ERIN DIGITALE
Tel 650-724-9175
digitale@stanford.edu

MARGARITA GALLARDO
Tel 650-723-7897
mjgallardo@stanford.edu

It’s been long known that anxiety and stress cause an increase in activity in the fear center of the brain (the amygdala and other parts of the brain) and a decrease in activity in the executive function parts of the brain (the prefrontal cortex and others).

However, this is the first time brain scans have been used to examine how emotion-regulation circuits are changed by anxiety and chronic stress in children.

The takeaway, however, is not that the brain is malfunctioning or damaged in some way due to anxiety, but that the brain is responding the way it’s supposed to when we think we are in danger. This change in brain function is an integral part of the body’s survival mechanism.

We explain this change in brain function in more detail in our “Stress Response” article.

We can remedy this change by behaving calmly instead of anxiously. As we use calming behavior, the executive function parts of the brain increase in activity, and the fear center decreases. Thus, restoring our ability to regulate our emotions.

So, it’s not that we can’t regulate our emotions when we’re anxious, but a matter of learning how so that we can gain more control over our emotions when we are anxious.

Recovery Support members can read the articles “Hyperstimulation And Its Effects,” “The Rational Brain And The Emotional Brain,” and the “Natural Ways To Shift The Body Out Of ‘Emergency Mode’” in chapter 14 for more information about how anxiety changes brain function and how to regain emotional control.

You can read the press release about this research below:

Stanford study finds stronger one-way fear signals in brains of anxious kids

Signals from the brain’s fear center make it more difficult for anxious and stressed children to regulate their emotions, a first-of-its-kind brain scanning study from Stanford shows.

In chronically stressed or anxious children, the brain’s fear center sends signals to the decision-making part of the brain that make it harder to regulate negative emotions, according to new research from the Stanford University School of Medicine.

The findings, which was published April 21 in Biological Psychiatry, come from the first study to use brain scans to examine how emotion-regulation circuits are changed by anxiety and chronic stress in children. The children studied were 10 or 11 years old, a developmental stage when vulnerability to mood-regulation disorders, such as anxiety and depression, becomes entrenched.

The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the nature of the signals between two parts of the brain: the amygdalae, almond-shaped nerve clusters on the right and left sides of the brain that function as its fear centers; and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain region involved in executive functions such as decision making and emotion regulation.



Advertisement - Article Continues Below



“The more anxious or stress-reactive an individual is, the stronger the bottom-up signal we observed from the amygdala to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,” said the study’s senior author, Vinod Menon, PhD, the Rachael L. and Walter F. Nichols, MD, Professor and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. “This indicates that the circuit is being hijacked in more anxious children, and it suggests a common marker underlying these two clinical measures, anxiety and stress reactivity.”

Victor Carrion, MD, a co-author of the study and professor of child and adolescent psychiatry, said, “This study shows that the communication between our emotional centers and our thinking centers becomes less fluid when there is significant stress. You want that connection to be strongly signaling back and forth. But stress and anxiety of a certain level seem to interrupt that process.”

Carrion is the director of the Stanford Early Life Stress and Pediatric Anxiety Program, and is the John A. Turner, MD, Endowed Professor for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Lead authorship of the paper is shared by researcher Stacie Warren, PhD, and postdoctoral scholar Yuan Zhang, PhD.

Kids react to images

The study included 45 students in a California community with predominantly low-income residents who often face high levels of adversity. All 45 children had their anxiety levels and stress responses measured using standard behavioral questionnaires. Although their exposure to stress was potentially high, none were diagnosed with mood disorders.

To test how the children’s brains responded as they were trying to regulate negative emotions, the scientists conducted functional MRI scans while the study participants looked at two types of images, neutral and aversive. Neutral images showed pleasant scenes, such as someone taking a walk, whereas aversive images showed potentially distressing scenes, such as a car crash.

The children received instructions about responding to each image. For all the neutral images and half the aversive images, they were asked to look at them and respond to them naturally, rating their emotional state on a numerical scale after seeing each one. They were asked to look at the other half of the aversive images and try to reduce any negative reactions they had by telling themselves a story to make the pictures seem less upsetting — a story such as, “This car crash looks bad, but the people in the vehicles weren’t hurt.” After the kids tried to modify their emotional reaction, they again rated their emotional state on the numerical scale.

As the researchers expected, the children reported less negative emotions after being asked to reappraise their reactions to aversive images.

Using the brain-scan data, the researchers tested the strength and direction of interactions between the amygdala, the fear center, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the reasoning center, while the children viewed the images. Although the children with different levels of anxiety and stress reactivity reported similar reductions in their negative emotions when asked to reappraise the aversive images, their brains were doing different things.

More stress leads to less control of emotional reaction

The more anxious or stressed the child, the stronger the directional signals from the right amygdala to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. No such effects were seen in the reverse direction — that is, there was no increase in signaling from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the amygdala. Higher levels of anxiety were associated with less positive initial reactions to aversive images, less ability to regulate emotional reaction in response to aversive images, and more impulsive reactions during reappraisal of aversive images. Higher stress reactivity was linked with less controlled, more impulsive reactions when reappraising aversive images, suggesting that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is less able to carry out its job.

Not only do the findings reveal how the brain can be changed by anxiety, they also act as a baseline for future studies to test interventions that may help children manage their anxiety and stress responses, the scientists said.

“We need to be more mindful about intervening,” Menon said. “These results show that the brain is not self-correcting in anxious children.”

“Thinking positively is not something that happens automatically,” Carrion said. “In fact, automatically we think negatively. That, evolutionarily, is what produced results. Negative thoughts are automatic thoughts, and positive thoughts need to be practiced and learned.”

The paper’s other Stanford co-authors are former research assistants Katherine Duberg and Sarah-Nicole Bostan; postdoctoral scholar Percy Mistry, PhD; Weidong Cai, PhD, clinical assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences; former postdoctoral scholar Shaozheng Qin, PhD; and former staff researcher Aarthi Padmanabhan, PhD.

This work was completed in partnership with the Ravenswood City, Alum Rock and Orchard school districts and Pure Edge Inc., which provides mindfulness curricula for children, and supported by the Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health, the National Institutes of Health (grants EB022907, NS086085 and MH121069), the Stanford Maternal Child Health Research Institute and the Stanford Institute for Computational & Mathematical Engineering.

Media Contacts

ERIN DIGITALE
Tel 650-724-9175
digitale@stanford.edu

MARGARITA GALLARDO
Tel 650-723-7897
mjgallardo@stanford.edu

2018
12/19/2018 Junk Food Diet Linked To Depression
12/13/2018 Healthy Parenting Can Protect Children From Developing Issues With Anxiety
12/11/2018 You Can Use Your Imagination To Extinguish Fear, Research Confirms
12/3/2018 Why We Stay In Unhealthy Relationships
11/27/2018 Psychological Intervention Life-Changing For Women Experiencing Domestic Abuse
11/21/2018 Link Between Anxiety Disorder, Early Life Trauma, and Empathy
11/20/2018 In-person Relationships Better For Mental Health Than Online Relationships
11/19/2018 Suicide Attempts Linked To Psychotropic Drug Prescriptions
11/13/2018 Insomnia Doesn’t Shorten Longevity
11/8/2018 Inability To Cope With Uncertainty Linked To Mental Health Problems
11/6/2018 Genes Have Little To Do With How Long You Live
11/5/2018 Happy Childhood Memories Linked To Better Health Later In Life
10/30/2018 Screen Time Linked To Anxiety And Depression In Children
10/29/2018 Vulgar And Crude Behavior Produces Abusive Relationships
10/26/2018 Parent-Child Bond Predicts Depression and Anxiety In Teens
10/26/2018 The Smell Of Lavender Is Relaxing
10/22/2018 Aerobic Exercise An Effective Antidepressant
10/22/2018 Therapy Twice As Effective As Medication For PTSD
10/16/2018 Most People Don't Know The Difference Between OCD And OCPD
10/2/2018 7 - 8 Hours Of Sleep Per Night Is Best For Cognitive Performance
10/2/2018 Stress Reduces Women’s Fertility
9/27/2018 Want To Reduce Stress And Anxiety? Write Your Positive And Happy Thoughts Dow
9/19/2018 Internet Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (ICBT) Effective Even For Children
9/13/2018 SNRI Antidepressants Can Cause Dependence And Withdrawal Syndromes
9/13/2018 One Third of College Freshman Worldwide Report Having A Mental Disorder
9/13/2018 One In Four Older Adults Prescribed Risky Long-term Benzodiazepine Medication
9/13/2018 Discuss Religion, Spirituality When Treating Mental Illness And Suicide
9/6/2018 Sexual Violence Haunts Women With Vivid Memories Decades Later
9/5/2018 Just Knowing You Are Supported Can Help You Cope With Uncertainty
8/31/2018 Mental Training Creates Resilience To Anxiety
8/30/2018 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) Most Effective Treatment
8/30/2018 For Optimum Health Get 6 - 8 Hours Sleep Per Night
8/29/2018 Restless Leg Syndrome Caused By Stress researchers confirm
8/29/2018 A Peaceful Mind Produces Sweeter Dreams
8/28/2018 Marijuana Found In Breast Milk
8/27/2018 Diet Impacts Emotional Well-being In Women More Than In Men
8/20/2018 Prenatal Exposure To Violence Leads To Increased Toddler Aggression Toward Mothers
8/1/2018 Stressed? Anxious? Eating High-Fiber Foods Could Help
7/31/2018 Meditation - A “Silver Bullet” Strategy For Anxiety Disorder
7/26/2018 Half Of Female Students Experience Psychological Distress
7/24/2018 Marijuana And Cannabis-Based Drugs Harm Your Brain
7/18/2018 Mental Disorders As Risk Factors For Chronic Pain In Teenagers
7/18/2018 Anxiety, Pain, and Chronic Pain
7/17/2018 Psychological Stress Can Make Pain Worse
7/11/2018 Probiotics Don't Reduce Anxiety, study finds
7/9/2018 Marijuana Makes Anxiety And Depression Worse In The Long Run
7/8/2018 Medical Marijuana Doesn’t Reduce Chronic Pain
7/2/2018 Less Than A Quarter Of American Youths Remain Anxiety Free After Treatment
6/18/2018 Marijuana Use Directly Increases Risk For Psychosis In Teens
5/21/2018 Americans Experience A Sharp Increase In Anxiety
5/19/2018 Anxiety Linked To Bone Health Problems In Postmenopausal Women
5/18/2018 Up To 14 Percent Of New Mental Illnesses Caused By Job Stress
5/15/2018 CBT Considered A Cure For Social Anxiety Disorder
5/2/2018 Psychotherapy For PTSD Proves Effective Long-term
4/23/2018 OCD Caused By Maladaptive Coping Skills
3/1/2018 Smartphone Addiction Causes Imbalance In Brain
1/31/2018 Only 1 in 10 Anxiety Disorder Sufferers Receives The Right Treatment

2017
11/21/2017 CBT for OCD Provides Long-term Relief
11/14/2017 Screen Time Might Boost Depression, Suicide Behaviors In Teens
11/9/2017 Stop And Smell The Roses - It’s True, It Does Make People Happier
11/2/2017 Childhood Adversities Linked To Mental And Physical Health Problems In Tweens And Teens
10/25/2017 Why Is Mental Illness On The Rise?
10/19/2017 Antidepressants Linked To Higher Diabetes Risk In Children
10/19/2017 Migraines Linked To Anxiety, Depression, and Poor Sleep Quality
10/18/2017 Gentle Touch Soothes The Pain Of Social Rejection
10/18/2017 No, A Serotonin Transporter Gene Variant Does Not Cause Depression
10/11/2017 Going To Church Reduces Stress And Mortality
10/10/2017 Efficacy Of Antidepressants Largely Psychological
10/6/2017 Delivering Bad News? Don't Beat Around The Bush!
10/5/2017 Child Abuse Affects Brain Wiring
10/5/2017 Mental Training Changes Brain Structure And Reduces Social Stress
10/4/2017 Bullying Causes Mental Health Issues Such As Anxiety And Depression
10/3/2017 One Hour Of Exercise A Week Can Prevent Depression, But Not Anxiety
9/29/2017 Sleep Deprivation Can Alleviate Symptoms Of Depression
9/27/2017 One In Four Girls Is Depressed At Age 14
9/26/2017 Antidepressants Provide Small Benefit Over Placebo But Produce Harmful Side Effects Including Suicide Ideation
9/25/2017 How Parents Handle Conflict Impacts Their Children
9/15/2017 Happiness Has A Positive Effect On Physical Health
9/15/2017 Antidepressants Found To Significantly Increase Risk Of Death
9/9/2017 Stress Can Activate Past Fears
8/26/2017 SSRI Antidepressant Medications Can Worsen Tinnitus
8/17/2017 Feeling Bad About Feeling Bad Can Make You Feel Worse
8/10/2017 Sexual Assault Linked To Increased Risk Of Mental Health Issues
8/9/2017 Self-Distancing Can Reduce Anxiety And Stress
8/3/2017 Fear Of The Unknown Common To Anxiety Disorders
7/31/2017 Talking To Yourself In The Third Person Can Help Control Emotions
7/28/2017 Marijuana Use Link To Psychosis Confirmed
7/19/2017 Overcoming Mental Health Issues Can Benefit Physical Health, Too!
7/6/2017 Going To Bed Late Causes Less Control Over OCD Symptoms
6/26/2017 Mind Body Interventions (MBIs) Reverse Changes In DNA That Cause Stress
6/21/2017 Meditation Changes Brain Structure In 8 Weeks
5/29/2017 Chronic Childhood Illness Linked With Later Life Mental Health Problems
5/25/2017 Survey Finds Widespread Ignorance, Stigma About Anxiety, Depression, and Others
5/19/2017 SSRI Antidepressants Tied To Increased Risk In Dementias, another study finds
5/2/2017 There Is An Upside To Worry, study finds
4/27/2017 Sleep Research Shows How The Brain Resets During Sleep
3/15/2017 Tackling Depression By Changing The Way You Think
2/7/2017 Talk Therapy Normalizes Brain Function, University of Zurich research finds.
1/18/2017 CBT Changes The Brain, new research finds.
1/5/2017 Antidepressants linked to increase in Alzheimer’s and other dementias, research finds.

2016
10/25/2016 Females Experience More Stress Than Males When Alone.
10/24/2016 Antidepressants Worsen Sexual Dysfunction and Depression, new study finds.
10/13/2016 Anxiety Therapy Sessions Best In The Morning, new study finds.
10/2/2016 SSRI Antidepressants Trigger Fear And Anxiety, Research Finds.
9/19/2016 CBT is the ‘Gold Standard’ treatment for anxiety disorder, multiple studies find.
8/31/2016 Insecure childhood can make dealing with stress harder.
8/29/2016 Less than one-third of adults with depression receive treatment.
8/25/2016 Memory Activation before exposure can reduce fear, Uppsala University research finds.
7/20/2016 Women with ADHD are much more likely to have a wide range of mental and physical health problems in comparison to women without ADHD.
7/19/2016 Same genes involved with both depression and happiness.
7/12/2016 Tinnitus (ringing in the ears): Cause and treatment identified.
7/11/2016 Most antidepressants are ineffective for children and teens, yet more likely to be dangerous than previously recognized study author concludes.
7/11/2016 Antidepressant use during pregnancy can affect newborn brain activity Helsinki University study finds
7/9/2016 A popular anti-anxiety medication, benzodiazepine, reduces empathy, new study finds
6/27/2016 Want to reduce anxiety? Depression? Spend time in nature, new study finds
6/23/2016 Why you can experience fear even before you realize you are in danger.
6/15/2016 Making art at any level reduces stress hormones
5/12/2016 Online therapy effective at treating depression and anxiety

2015
12/17/2015 Talk therapy better for winter blues than light therapy, study finds
12/16/2015 Unhappiness and stress do not increase mortality, new study finds
12/15/2015 Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Increases Risk Of Autism By 87 Percent
12/14/2015 Helping Others Reduces Stress, research finds
12/8/2015 The approach anxietycentre.com uses to resolve anxiety disorder is the most effective, research finds
11/25/2015 Computer Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Provides Little Or No Benefits For Depression, study finds
11/25/2015 Serotonin exerts different and sometimes opposing effects on different parts of the brain
11/16/2015 Anxiety Can Aggravate Asthma and Vice Versa, study finds
11/16/2015 Anxiety Can Aggravate Asthma and Vice Versa, study finds
11/5/2015 Fitness And Brain Connectivity Linked
11/2/2015 Children's self-esteem already established by age 5, new study finds
10/21/2015 Marijuana use disorders rise as marijuana use rises
10/20/2015 One Fifth Of Young People Experience High Levels Of Anxiety, UK study finds
10/20/2015 Burnout and Depression: two entities or one?
10/7/2015 Over half of workers with depression do not recognize need for treatment
10/5/2015 Benzodiazepine Medications Ineffective For Anxiety Disorder, May Increase Dementia Risk
10/5/2015 Face-To-Face Social Interactions Can Reduce Anxiety, Depression - research finds
9/30/2015 The placebo response is behind much of a patient’s response to drug treatment when it comes to depressive disorder
9/18/2015 Why people end anxiety therapy too soon - University of Houston
9/16/2015 Antidepressant, Paxil, was misrepresented as safe for adolescents, study finds
8/5/2015 Consuming highly refined carbohydrates increases risk of depression
7/31/2015 Anxiety And Fatigue: New research finds link
7/31/2015 Perfectionism Linked To Burnout
7/30/2015 Anxiety and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Linked
7/14/2015 Benzodiazepines not recommended for patients with PTSD or recent trauma
3/31/2015 Publication Bias Inflates Efficacy Of Antidepressants For Anxiety Disorders
3/9/2015 SSRIs Virtually Ineffective For Anxiety And Depression

The combination of good self-help information and working with an experienced anxiety disorder therapist, coach, or counselor is the most effective way to address anxiety and its many symptoms. Until the core causes of anxiety are addressed – which we call the underlying factors of anxiety – a struggle with anxiety unwellness can return again and again. Dealing with the underlying factors of anxiety is the best way to address problematic anxiety.

Additional Resources

Visit our anxiety disorders signs and symptoms page.

anxietycentre.com: Information, support, and therapy for anxiety disorder and its symptoms, including the latest anxiety research.