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Healthy Parenting Can Protect Children From Developing Issues With Anxiety

Marilyn Folk BScN medical reviewer
Written by: Jim Folk.
Medically reviewed by: Marilyn Folk, BScN.
Last updated: April 3, 2019

Healthy Parenting Can Protect Children From Developing Issues With Anxiety

Our personal and professional experiences with anxiety disorder over 30 plus years has made clear the tight link between the environment we grow up in and the development of anxiety disorder. More specifically, the role parenting plays in the development of anxiety issues.

Numerous studies over the years have confirmed the link between environmental factors, such as early life trauma, abuse, and parenting styles and the development of anxiety disorder (and other mental health issues).[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

New research by the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology has again confirmed the link between how parents raise their children and the mental health outcomes of those children.[13] The researchers found that even though a child grows up in a stressful environment, the quality of the parental relationship can protect them from developing issues with anxiety. This research once again highlights the important role parents can play in helping their children avoid the development of mental health issues, such as anxiety disorder.

You can read the press release of this research below:


New Research Suggests How Parents Protect Children From The Long-Term Effects Of Stress

AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY

When young children experience violence or poverty, the effect can last well into adulthood. But new research from the Emory School of Medicine suggests that a strong parental relationship could override some of these effects, by changing how children perceive the environmental cues that help them distinguish between what's safe or dangerous.

To study the impact of the caregiver relationship, a research team led by Jennifer Stevens and Tanja Jovanovic used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to observe activity in the amygdala, a key area of the brain that processes fear and emotion. The researchers showed children aged 8-13 a series of photos of adult faces that were either neutral or expressing fear. The amygdalae of children who had experienced violence in their lives grew more active in response to both types of faces, which suggests that these children may engage emotional, fight-or-flight responses even for social cues that are not particularly threatening. This may be an adaptive response to growing up in an unpredictable or dangerous environment. In children who hadn't experienced violence, amygdalae were more only active in response to the fearful faces.

In another part of the experiment, the researchers had children and their mothers collaborate on a challenging Etch-a-Sketch task and rated the mothers' expressions during the interaction. Then they had the children look at photos of faces. When the mothers had been more positive towards their children, the amygdalae of the younger children, aged 8-10, showed a decrease over time in response to the fearful faces . This suggests that in young children, the relationship with a mother affects the brain's response to potential environmental threats. The same effect wasn't observed in older children.

The findings build on earlier research by the same team, which established that the physical distance between young children and their mothers can influence how the children assess danger. In the previous study, young children who were physically nearer to their mothers were better able to differentiate between safe and threatening stimuli. Once again, older children didn't show the same effect.

The findings indicate that even if a child grows up in a stressful environment, parental relationships can protect them, says Stevens. "Interventions such as parent training designed to help parents respond positively to young children, might be especially important in situations that are really challenging or where there are low resources," she says.


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REFERENCES:

1. Aktar, Evin. “Environmental transmission of generalized anxiety disorder from parents to children: worries, experiential avoidance, and intolerance of uncertainty.” NCBI PubMed, 19 June 2017, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573558/

2. Brook, Christine A, et al. “Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors.” US National Institute of Medicine, 4 Feb. 2008, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2515922/

3. Kuo, Janice R, et al. “Childhood Trauma and Current Psychological Functioning in Adults with Social Anxiety Disorder.” NCBI PubMed, 25, May 2011, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074005/

4. Syed, Shariful A, et al. “Early Life Stress, Mood, and Anxiety Disorders.” US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 1 Feb. 2017, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5482282/

5. Achenbach TM, Edelbrock CS. The classification of child psychopathology: a review and analysis of empirical efforts. Psychological Bulletin. 1978;85:1275–301. [PubMed]

6. Ainsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, et al. Patterns of attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1978.

7. Alden LE, Taylor CT. Interpersonal processes in social phobia. Clinical Psychology Review. 2004;24:857–82. [PubMed]

8. Allen NB, Lewinsohn PM, Seeley JR. Prenatal and perinatal influences on risk for psychopathology in childhood and adolescence. Development and Psychopathology. 1998;10:513–29. [PubMed]

9. Anderson, Jane. “The impact of family structure on the health of children: Effects of divorce.” NCBI PubMed, November 2014, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240051/

10. Monnat, Shannon M., et al. “Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences.” US National Institute of Medicine, 3 July 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617302/

11. Kiera M. James et al, Parental Expressed Emotion-Criticism and Neural Markers of Sustained Attention to Emotional Faces in Children, Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology (2018). DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2018.1453365

12. Arrindell WA, Emmelkamp PMG, Monsma A, et al. The role of perceived parental rearing practices in the aetiology of phobic disorders: A controlled study. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1983;143:183–7. [PubMed]

13. staff, Science X. “New Research Suggests How Parents Protect Children from the Long-Term Effects of Stress.” Medical Xpress - Medical Research Advances and Health News, Medical Xpress, 13 Dec. 2018, medicalxpress.com/news/2018-12-parents-children-long-term-effects-stress.html.


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